Self-consistent, non-irradiated and irradiated exoplanetary atmospheres with HELIOS
The atmosphere, as the outermost boundary, determines the rate at which a young planet, heated from within, cools over time. We employ the new 1D radiative transfer code HELIOS to calculate a large grid of self-consistently calculated atmospheric models in radiative-convective equilibrium for a wide variety of self-luminous and irradiated gas giants. In the self-luminous case the grid spans a large range in different C/O ratios, metallicities, surface gravities and effective temperatures. The atmospheric models are freely accessible from an online database, ready to be employed by planetary evolution and population studies. We provide corresponding emission spectra to help determine whether and in which wavelengths those planets can be best characterized with current and future observing facilities. We further test the impact of utilizing out-dated opacities versus newest EXOMOL and HITEMP opacities on those calculated emission spectra. Finally, we provide atmospheric models for prototypes of the most common irradiated gas giants, be it hot Jupiters or colder planets prone to direct imaging.
HELIOS is an open-source tool which, being able to calculate the temperature structures and spectra for any given longitude/latitude, is also well-equipped to interpret phase curve data.