Detection of a New Planet in a Resonant Orbit Using Transit Timing Variations

The vast amount of data from the Kepler Space Telescope has provided more than just transiting planets.  By analyzing the timing of transit, the existence of more planets, as well as the properties of already known planets, can be determined.  Here we look at the case of Kepler-159, a system of two transiting planets, one of which shows significant transit timing variations.  Using orbital modeling and Bayesian Inference, we determine the existence of a third planet in a resonant orbit, as well as mass estimates and orbital parameters for the two interacting planets.

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